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The Greatness of a nation can be judged by the way its animals are treated- Mahatma Gandhi
 

ANIMAL  HUSBANDRY DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITIES

INTRODUCTION:  Animal Husbandry is a major economic activity of the rural peoples, especially in the arid and semi-arid regions of the Rajasthan. Development of livestock sector has a significant beneficial impact in generating employment and reducing poverty in rural areas. Livestock contributes a large portion of draft power for agriculture, with approximately half the cattle population and 25 percent of the buffalo population being used for cultivation.

About 10% of G.D.P. of the State is contributed by Livestock sector alone. This sector has great potential for rural self-employment at the lowest possible investment per unit. Therefore, livestock development is a critical pathway to rural prosperity.

As per the livestock census 2012, there are 577.32 lacs livestock (which include Cattle, buffalo, Sheep, Goat, Pig, Camel, Horse and donkey) and Poultry 80.24 lacs in the State. Rajasthan has about 7% of country’s cattle population and contributes over 12.72% of total milk production, 2.46% of meat and 34.46 % wool produced in the country.

MAIN ACTIVITIES AND PROGRAMMES OF THE DEPARTMENT:

Various livestock development programmes are aimed to increase the productivity of the animals on sound scientific methodology. The main activities and programmes of the department includes:-

  • Breed improvement programme using superior germplasm, castration of non-descript bulls/calves & infertility camps
  • Veterinary health care & Disease Control Programme
  • Extension Activities
1) BREED IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMME USING SUPERIOR GERMPLASM

Objectives:

  • Progressive genetic improvement for milk production in important breed/type of cows and buffaloes by following scientific methods.
  • Production and distribution of superior pedigreed bulls for use in Cattle and Buffalo Breeding Programme.
  • Conservation of Indigenous Cattle Breeds germ-plasm.
  • Upgrading non-descript low productive cattle by crossbreeding
  • To bring non-productive/ infertile animals into production by making them fertile through infertility camps
  • Making non-descript scrub bulls/calves sterile by castration for preventing breed deterioration

a) Indigenous Cattle & Buffalo Breed Improvement Programme:

To preserve and develop the well recognized indigenous breeds of cattle of the state, the indigenous breed improvement programme is being operated in the native tract of cattle breeds viz.  Gir (Jaipur, Sikar, Alwar, Dausa, Jhunjhunu, Ajmer, Bhilwara, Tonk, Udaipur, Chiitorgarh, Dungerpur, Banswara, Rajasamand, Pratapgarh, Kota, Bundi, Jhalawar, Baran, Bharatpur, Karauli, Swaimadhopur, Dholpur),  Tharparkar (Jaipur, Sikar, Alwar, Dausa, Jhunjhunu, Nagour, Jodhpur, Pali, Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner, Churu, Ganaganagar, Hanumangarh);  Rathi (Bikaner, Churu, Ganaganagar, Hanumangarh), Kankrej (Sirohi, Jalore) and Nagauri (Nagaur district) & Buffallo breeds Murrah (for  all state) and Surti(for Udaipur Division)

The frozen semen of the selected bulls of these breeds is provided for artificial insemination in animals of the respective breeds and genetic improvement is achieved by selective breeding / up gradation of the animals in the respective breed tract.

b) Goat Development Programme:

Rajasthan is having 3 well known breeds of goats viz.: Jakharana, Sirohi, and Marwari breeds.  The goat population of Rajasthan is more than 216 millions.
The programme for goat development is mainly aimed to help in improving the weaker sections of society.  There are goat farms of the department working at Ramsar in Ajmer district, Cattle Breeding Farm, Nagaur and Kumher at Bharatpur District.  Goat development programme is aimed to develop Sirohi goats in ten districts of South-Western regions of the State viz.: Ajmer, Pali, Sirohi, Bhilwara, Rajasmand, Chittorgarh, Dungarpur, Banswara, Nagaur and Udaipur. Sirohi breed kids of about 4-6 months age are selected from the home tract and are reared at Ramsar farm Ajmer and Cattle Breeding farm, Nagaur. The bucks of Jamunapari breed of goat are being reared at Cattle Breeding farm, Kumher, in Bharatpur District. These bucks are distributed in Bharatpur, Dholpur, Karauli, Alwar and SawaiMadhopur Districts. 
These elite Sirohi/Jamunapari bucks after attaining breeding age are distributed to goat breeders @ Rs.1200 to BPL /ST/SC families and to others @ Rs. 1600 per Buck. For out of State Breeders or institutions @ Rs 5000/- 

c) Sheep Breeding Programme: -   To improve the sheep population of the state genetically by providing superior breeding males (rams) to the sheep breeders, Department is running a Sheep Breeding Farm at Fatehpur (Sikar). According to the departmental sheep breeding policy, the indigenous pure breed Ram (Chokala, Nali and Marwari) of the farm has been distributed to sheep breeders @   Rs. 50/- per Kg live weight. In the year 2018-19, the farm has distributed 243 proven Rams at subsidized cost to sheep breeders.

d) Pig Breeding Programme:- The pig is one of the most efficient animals having great food conversion efficiency among domesticated livestock that can play an important role in improving the socio-economic as well as nutritional status of the weaker sections of the society. The Department has established one Piggery Development Training Centre at Alwar where 3 days training programme is being conducted free of cost. Five batches of 25 pig farmers each training programs has been conducted in 2018-19. A pig breeding farm is maintained at Alwar. The large white Yorkshire pigs are provided to pig breeders for scientific breed improvement. Unit of pig (3 male + 1 female) is being supplied in the state especially to the Schedule Caste, Tribes and marginal farmers. This Pig unit (3+1) is being distributed to the Socially Backward Classes on subsidized rates i.e. @ Rs. 5000 per Unit.

2) VETERINARY HEALTH CARE & DISEASE CONTROL  PROGRAMME:- 

The veterinary health coverage programme is the most vital input for the livestock production programme.  The genetic traits of the superior exotic and crossbred livestock cannot be exploited fully unless they are provided specialized health care and management as they are highly susceptible to the diseases.  There has been continuous increase in the number of Veterinary Institutions in the State. 

a) Veterinary Health Care Programme:- The health of the animals of the state is being taken care of by 7897 veterinary institutions comprising of 35 Polyclinics (VPC), 785, First Grade Veterinary Hospitals (VHF), 1710 Veterinary Hospitals (VH), 198 Veterinary Dispensaries,  5067 Sub-Centers (SC),102 District Mobile Veterinary Unit(DMVU). These institutions are situated in far flung areas of the state. The sub-centers and dispensaries are headed by technical subordinate staff i.e. Livestock Assistant (LSA) & Veterinary Assistant (VA), respectively. Whereas the VH, VHF & VPCs are headed by the state officer cadre staff i.e. Veterinary Officer (VO), Senior Veterinary Officer (SVO) and Deputy Director (DD), respectively. All these institutions are stationary with working jurisdiction of villages falling in their 8 Km radius area.

b) Disease Control Programme:- The animals are vaccinated regularly against many fatal diseases viz. Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS), Black quarter (BQ), Enterotoxaemia (ET), Sheep Pox, Foot & Mouth Disease (FMD), PPR, Brucella and Rabies.

The vaccination is done at a nominal cost i.eRs. 1.00 per dose for HS/BQ, Rs. 0.50 per dose for ET/Sheep Pox. Registration fee of Rs. 2.00 is charged for PPR, FMD, Brucella..

c) Biological Production Unit (B.P.Lab):- State Biological Product Laboratory, situated at Agra Road, Jamdoli Jaipur-302007,  is producing various  types of vaccines viz. Haemorrhagic Septicemia (HS), Black quarter (BQ), Enterotoxaemia (ET) etc.  for effective control of diseases in the state.

d) Disease Diagnostic Centres:- Department is providing animal disease diagnostic facilities through One State Disease Diagnostic Centre, 6 Regional Disease Diagnostic  Centres and 27 Disease Diagnostic  Laboratories  at District headquarters to the vast livestock population. For effective control of diseases in animals, the department is running a programme under Assistance to States for Control of Animal Diseases (ASCAD)

e) Assistance to States for Control of Animal Diseases (ASCAD):- This is a scheme of Government of India. Under this component, assistance is provided to State Governments for control of economically important diseases of livestock and poultry by way of immunization, strengthening of existing State Veterinary Biological Production Units, strengthening of existing Disease Diagnostic Laboratories, holding workshops/seminars and in-service training to Veterinarians and Para-veterinarians to carry out Disease Investigation work in the state through a network of Laboratories located at Capital, various Divisional & District places.

1.  State Disease Diagnostic Centre Jaipur.
2.  Regional Disease Diagnostic Centres Kota, Ajmer, Udaipur,  Jodhpur, Bikaner & Bhagalpur.

1. State Disease Diagnostic Centre, Jaipur:- The lab is controlled by Joint Director. All other disease diagnostic laboratories of the districts except Jaipur are under the administrative control of their respective district Joint Directors, while technically these are controlled by Joint Director, SDDC Jaipur. SDDC acts as a referral unit for diagnosis and extends expert opinion to various departmental institutions like RDDCs, DDLs, Veterinary polyclinics, Veterinary Hospitals, Veterinary Dispensaries etc. Besides this it also conducts routine diagnostic work on the material received from the field Institutions.  SDDC is recently upgraded to BSL –II, with this status centre equipped and authorized to screen Avian Influenza in the State.

2. Regional Disease Diagnostic Centre Kota, Ajmer, Udaipur, Jodhpur, Bikaner &Bhagalpur: - The lab is controlled by Deputy Director. All regional disease diagnostic centres are under the administrative control of their respective Additional Director (Range), while technically these are controlled by Joint Director SDDC Jaipur. RDDC acts as a referral unit for diagnosis and extends expert opinion to various departmental institutions like, DDLs, Veterinary polyclinics, Veterinary Hospitals, Veterinary Dispensaries etc besides this it also conducts routine diagnostic work on the material received from the field Institutions.

3. District Disease Diagnostic Laboratory- The Laboratory functions as a Disease investigation unit for diagnosis and extending expert opinion to various departmental Institutions at district level. Besides this it also conducts routine diagnostic work on the material received from the field Institutions.

4. Poultry Disease Diagnostic Laboratory- One Poultry Disease Diagnostic Laboratory headed by a Deputy Director under the control of Joint Director SDDC Jaipur is working at Gandhinagar, Jaipur.

Facilities available: - Routine pathological examination like Blood and Faecal examination, Screening of dairy animals for Brucella, Tuberculosis & Johne’s Disease, Screening of Poultry farms for important diseases like Salmonellosis. Lab to Land Programme, Collection of sample of different Disease e.g. FMD, PPR, IBR, Swine Fever, Glander, Rabies & other disease. 
Important Achievements:  

  • The labs have completed the National Programme on Rinder-Pest Eradication successfully as per the O.I.E. mandate.
  • Elisa Labs have been started at Jaipur, Jodhpur, Kota and Udaipur.

f) Animal Disease Control:-For surveillance & monitoring of disease there is extensive network of disease surveillance in the department. The Animal Disease Control Section responsible for monitoring & control of outbreaks of animal diseases and its containment.

Simultaneously it also helps in containment of zoonotic diseases of public health importance. For any outbreak the veterinary hospital at field level, Joint director at district level and Joint director ADC, can be contacted at Directorate level.

g) Anti Rabies Unit:- In the state at Jaipur & Ajmer two units are functioning for control of rabies, under the scheme mass vaccination of pet dogs are performed through routine OPD services in respective policlinics.

3)  EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

a) Poultry Development Programme:-A major breakthrough has been made in the field of development of high producing strains of layer stock in the State.  One state level poultry farms is situated  at Khatipura, Jaipur and a State disease diagnostic laboratory of poultry is also functioning at Gandhinagar,  Jaipur.

b) Livestock Marketing: - Rajasthan is the home tract of various breeds of different livestock species.  With a view to encourage the livestock farming and to maintain these important famous breeds of the livestock, 10 state level cattle fairs are organized every year by the department in the different parts of the State.  The Animal Breeders earn about Rs. 25-30 Crore annually through the sale of the animals.  Besides these state level cattle fairs, nearly 240 cattle fairs are also organized by different agencies like Panchayat Samities, Nagar Palikas etc. in the State.

c) State Level Cattle Fairs:- The heritage of Rajasthan and its cultural diversities is well projected in the various state level fairs conducted by the state Animal Husbandry department. These fairs are conducted with an aim to draw their attention to the scientific and technical developments in the Animal Husbandry sector and to motivate them for developing and rearing elite animals. These fairs are an appropriate source for sale and purchase of livestock adding to the income of livestock owners / breeders.

There are 10 such fairs in the state, the list of which is as follows:

S.No.

Name of the Cattle Fair

District

Month of Conduction

As Per Hindi
Tithi

1

Shri Ram Dev Pashu Mela

Nagore

January - February

MaghaShukla 1 to MaghaShukla 15

2

Shri Mahashivratri Pashu Mela

Karauli

February

MaghaShukla 15 to Phalgun Krishna 7

3

Shri MalliNath Pashu Mela, Tilwada

Barmer

March - April

ChaitraKrishan 11 to ChaitraShukla 11

4

Shri Baldev Pashu Mela, Merta City

Nagore

March - April

ChaitraShukla 1 to ChaitraShukla 15

5

Shri Gomti Sagar Pashu Mela, Jhalrapattan

Jhalawar

May

BaisakhShukla 13 to Jyaistha Krishna 5

6

Shri Veer Tejaji PashuMela, Parbatsar

Kuchaman City

August

SavanShukla 15 to Bhadrakrishna 15

7

Shri Gogamedi Pashu Mela

Hanumangarh

August - September

SavanShukla 15 to BhadonShukla 15

8

Shri Jaswant Pradarshni  & PashuMela

Bharatpur

September - October

AshwinShukla 5 to AshwinShukla 14.

9

Shri Kartik Pashu Mela, Pushkar

Ajmer

November

KartikShukla 01 to Mangsir Krishna 02

10

Shri Chandrabhaga Pashu Mela, Jhalarapatan

Jhalawar

November - December

KartikShukla 11 to Mangsir Krishna 5

d) Fodder Development: - Balanced feeding is essential to fully exploit the genetic potential of livestock. In the State, fodder production is still deemed ancillary to agricultural production. Crop residues mainly sorghum, maize, Wheat and Bajra straws that are poor in nutritive value constitute the major fodder for livestock. If the animals are not properly fed the overall effects will be negative as far as breeding and management is concerned. Better feeding alone can bring about an increase of 30% in milk production.

Status of Dry Fodder in year 2018-19 (In Lakh MT)
Requirement                                      393.97 lakhs M.T
Likely fodder Availability                339.30 lakhs M.T

The green fodder availability is restricted to selected areas and seasons. High population pressure on grazing lands has led to depletion and over exploitation of available grazing lands. In addition, rapid urbanization has led to shrinking of grazing lands. Moreover, with the increasing pressure on land for growing food grains, oil seeds and pulses and diversified use of agriculture residues, the gap between the demand and supply of fodder is increasing. 
Presently under National Livestock Mission Programme fodder production from non forest/wasteland/grassland/non-arable land is running in four departmental farms.

e) Goshala Development Programme: - Under the Rajasthan Goshala Act 1960 till now 2727 Goshalas has been registered. These Goshalas have been established by the public trusts for maintaining old, infirm, unproductive cows and its progeny. Goshalas may be used for preservation & conservation of indigenous breeds. The central government as well as state government is also assisting these Goshalas for cattle development. For details contact to Joint Director, Goshala, Directorate of Animal Husbandry, Rajasthan, Jaipur.

f) Training Programme:-

1.

Poultry Training  Programme
**15days poultry training programme for Veterinary  Officer & paravets  
** one month training programme for Poultry breeders

Ajmer & Jaipur

2.

Three days Piggery Training           

Alwar

3.

15 days A.I. Training Programme          

KVS – Jaipur & Jodhpur

4.

3 days, 7 days & 15 days Refresher Courses for Veterinarians

RSLMTI, Jaipur

g) Sheep Migration:- Migration of sheep is a regular feature of sheep rearing in the western parts of Rajasthan.   Sheep from southern parts of Jodhpur-Jaisalmer pass through Bali, Abu-road through Palanpur, reach up to river beds in Baroda, and Surat where they spend about two months.  Similarly sheep from northern parts of these regions go through Sawai-Madhopur or Hindauncity to river bank in Mathura.   Usually, the farmers set out on their journey in winter and return to their homes in early monsoon. In Churu, Jhunjhunu and Sikar districts the flocks are relatively stable and they migrate for short period from their home village to grazing areas in neighboring villages when the local pastures are exhausted. 

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